Reading and Writing Disorders

2. Service

Learning to read and write is a very important skill in academic years. Some students have significant difficulty in learning to reading and/or write. These problems not only affect their academic achievement, but also lead to negative emotions towards learning. Some students may even fear schools.

ENT Laser – A Decade of Excellence

  • Our speech therapists have years of experience in providing service and training to mainstream primary and secondary schools. We can design and provide appropriate training in listening, speech, reading and composing to different grades of students. The training will tie in with the Chinese program in school, so as to assist the students to handle their academic learning.
  • In 2008 summer, in cooperation with our consultant Dr. Richard Wong (Assistant Professor, Hong Kong Institute of Education), our centre organized a training program “we can learn to read” (《我都讀得到》認讀訓練課程), which targeted on reading and comprehension skills. Twenty students studying in mainstream primary schools participated in this program. During the program, all participants enjoyed the activities and showed positive feedback to the training. After the program, most participants showed significant improvement in reading and comprehension tasks. This program has been held in mainstream primary school as well.
  • In 2009, a reading training package “we can learn to read” (《我都讀得到》閱讀障礙訓練課程及教材套) has been published. This package provides a comprehensive training program and exercises on reading comprehension to therapists, teachers and parents for junior primary students.


Developmental Dyslexia consists of two types of difficulties: dyslexia and dysgraphia.

Developmental dyslexia

  • It is the most common specific learning difficulty (SpLD) among students, making up above 80% of that population. Around 9.7% to 12.6% Hong Kong primary students are found to show various degree of reading difficulties (Chen, et al., 2007). Reading difficulty is a congenital impairment resulted from abnormality of brain functioning in learning to read.

Developmental dysgraphia

  • Most people with dyslexia also show difficulty in writing and composition. However, some people have adequate reading skills but have specific difficulty in learning to write. 

Developmental dyslexia

Signs and symptoms:
  • At least average intelligence
  • Within normal range of visual ability (after correction)
  • Within normal range of auditory ability (after correction)
  • Adequate opportunity to learn to read
  • Have difficulty in learning to read and spell/ write
    • Reading difficulty includes: difficulty in recognition of written words, difficulty in comprehending written sentence, questions and passage, slow reading speed, etc.
    • Writing difficulty includes: slow writing and copying, frequent copying and writing errors, omission of characters in copying, bad script, uneven spacing among characters, frequent grammatical errors and poor organization in composition, etc. Some of them also have poor fine motor control, poor grip in writing and coordination problems. Some may show visual and spatial perception problems. 
Learning to read is developed as a continuum from learning to speak. Therefore, children with oral language impairment are likely to have difficulty in learning to read and compose.

Marginal SpLD

  • When a student scores below average in parts of a standardized reading and writing test (e.g. HKT-SpLD), including reading and writing subtests, but his/her scores in other subtests of related cognitive skills are within normal limits, he/she may be classified by the psychologist as marginal SpLD. 


Registered speech therapist (ST) will carry out a comprehensive language assessment with students suspected to have reading difficulty. It includes a standardized character recognition test (for primary students in Hong Kong), assessment on reading comprehension of words, sentences, paragraphs and passages, and oral language assessments (comprehension and expression).


Reading training consisting of:
  • Base on theory in learning to read, Chinese characters are introduced to the students according to difficulty of recognition and learning to read. It aims to assist the students to acquire and consolidate the skills needed for reading Chinese characters.
  • Interest in learning to read is enhanced through interesting and age-appropriate activities.
  • Via the use of progressively difficult level of materials, enhance the skills of reading and comprehension of sentence, paragraphs and passages. Usage of learnt characters/words and reading automaticity is enhanced.
  • Fundamental skills for learning to read Chinese will be targeted base on individual needs of the students, e.g. morphological and radical awareness.
  • Oral language training (comprehension and expression) is provided according to individual needs. 
Writing training consisting of:
  • Multisensory approach and activities are employed to strengthen students’ awareness to character structures (radicals and logographemes). Composition and organization skills are trained via oral language training.
MoreClient's Sharing
“ I would like to thank my therapist for her patient teaching. My son has made a giant leap in progress.